FAQs


E-Way Bill

What has to be entered in GSTIN Column, if Consignor or consignee is not having GSTIN?

If the Consignor or consignee is unregistered taxpayer and not having GSTIN, then user has to enter ‘URP’ (Unregistered Person) in corresponding GSTIN Column.

How does the tax payer become transporter in the e-way bill system?

To change his position from supplier or recipient to transporter, the tax payer has to select the option ‘Register as Transporter’ under registration and update his profile. Once it is done, the system changes tax payer as transporter.

How to generate e-way bill for multiple invoices belonging to same consignor and consignee?

If multiple invoices are issued by supplier to recipient, that is, for movement of goods of more than one invoice of same consignor and consignee, multiple EWBs have to be generated. That is, for each invoice, one EWB has to be generated, irrespective of same or different consignors or consignees are involved. Multiple invoices cannot be clubbed to generate one EWB. However, after generating all these EWBs, one Consolidated EWB can be prepared for transportation purpose, if they are going in one vehicle.

Before Submission, the system is not allowing to edit the details, what to do?

The system allows editing the details of e-way bill entries before submission. However, if the products/commodities details are entered, it will not allow editing some fields as the tax rates will change. To enable this, please delete the products and edit the required fields and enter the products again.

How does the taxpayer enter the Part-A details and generate the e-way bill later by entering Part-B?

The taxpayer can enter Part-A details and generate the Part-A slip. Sometimes, the taxpayer wants to move the goods himself but wants to update Part-B later as vehicle number is not available at that point of time. E-way Bill expects the user to enter transporter ID or vehicle number. So, if he wants to move the goods himself, he can enter his GSTIN as transporter Id and generate Part-A slip. This indicates to the system that he is a transporter and is going to enter Part-B later.

How to generate the e-way bill from different registered business places?

The registered person can generate the e-way bill from his account from any registered place. However, he/she needs to enter the address accordingly in the e-way bill. He /she can also create multiple sub-users and assigned to these places and generate the e-way bills accordingly.

What is the role of sub-users in e-way bill system? How can sub-users be activated?

A taxpayer can create sub-users in the e-way bill system and assign specific roles to them like generation of EWB or rejection or report generation activities based on requirements. This helps the large firms with multi locations/ shifts to distribute work.

What has to be done by the transporter if consignee refuses to take goods or reject the goods for quality reasons?

There is a chance that consignee or recipient may reject to take the delivery of consignment due to various reasons. Under such circumstance, the transporter can get one more e-way bill generated with the help of supplier or recipient by indicating supply as ‘Sales Return’ and with relevant document details and return the goods to supplier as per his agreement with him.

Whether e-way bill is required, if the goods are being purchased and moved by the consumer to his destination himself?

Yes, as per the rules, e-way bill is required to be carried along with the goods at the time of transportation, if the value is more that Rs 50,000/-. Under this circumstance, the consumer can get the e-way bill generated from the taxpayer or supplier, based on the bill or invoice issued by him. Or the consumer can enroll and log in as the citizen and generate the e-way bill.

I am unable to enroll as transporter as the system is saying ‘Aadhar details are not validated’.

This is indicating that Aadhar name, mobile and Number, entered by you, are not getting validated by Aadhar system. Please enter exact name, mobile and number provided in the Aadhar card.

Can E-way bill be modified or edited?

The E-way Bill once generated, cannot be edited or modified. Only Part-B can be updated to it. However, if e-way bill is generated with wrong information, it can be cancelled and generated freshly again. The cancellation is required to be done within twenty four hours from the time of generation.

Why the Transporter needs to enroll on the E-way bill system?

There may be some transporters, who are not registered under Goods and Services Tax Act and if such transporters cause movement of goods for their clients, they are required to generate the e-way bill on behalf of their clients or update the vehicle number for e-way bill. Hence, they need to enroll on the e-way bill portal and generate the 15digits Unique Transporter ID (TRANSIN).

What is TRANSIN or transporter ID?

TRANSIN or Transporter id is 15 digit unique number generated by EWB system for unregistered transporter once he enrolls on the system. TRANSIN is 15 digit number on the similar lines of GSTIN and is based on state code, PAN and check digit. This can be shared by Transporter to his clients to enter this number while generating e-way bills.

What has to be done, if the validity of the e-way bill expires?

If validity of the e-way bill expires, the goods are not supposed to be moved. However, under circumstance of ‘exceptional nature’, the generator of the e-way bill can generate another e-way bill, by entering the e-way bill number and part-B. Now, the system generates the new e-way bill with part-A information of previous e-way bill and new Part-B information.

GST

Q.1 Whether a person can avail the composition scheme on Small Retail Trading of goods if he is holding both incomes like Sale of business: Rs.25 lakh (Small Retail Trader) and Rental income: Rs. 12lakhs, whereas the person was registered earlier in VAT Composition Scheme and was paying Service Tax on rental income?

Ans. Renting is a service and supplier of service, except restaurant service, cannot opt for composition scheme. Since you are supplying both goods & services, you are not eligible for composition scheme.


Q.2 In view of definition of ‘export of goods’ given in Section 2(5) of the IGST Act, 2017, the supply of goods by the manufacturer to merchant exporter cannot be treated as exports as he is not taking out the goods out of India. He is supplying the goods to the merchant-exporter. Therefore, is the manufacturer required to pay CGST and SGST in all cases of exports by merchant-exporter even though the goods are being sealed in container for export from the premises of manufacturer-exporter? Does the merchant-exporter have the option either to avail option of LUT or to pay IGST for export of such goods?

Ans: Yes, The manufacturer would be liable to pay CGST and SGST.  The merchant-exporter has the option either to avail option of LUT or to pay IGST for export of such goods. There is no provision on the lines of Form H under the CST Act in the GST.


Q. 3 If an Assessee has two or more units with single registration, how the invoices are to be maintained viz., separate invoices unit wise or single invoice for all units ?

Ans: He can issue unit-wise invoice also. But there should not be any duplication in numbering system.


Q. 4 Is the GST applicable on interest levied on an EMI of the product purchased from the Amazon provided payment made from a credit card?

Ans: Yes, any interest paid on loan taken through Credit Card (with blocking or without blocking credit card limit) is taxable under GST.

Amazon provides EMI services through credit card of its’ partner banks. So, any EMI facility offered by Amazon is not of itself, but is of your banker who has extended you a Credit card facility. So, any such loan taken through Amazon is actually taken from Bank.

As per entry no. 15 of CGST Rate Notification No. 11/2017 dtd 28.06.2017 read with entry no. 27 of CGST Rate Notification No. 12/2017 dtd 28.06.2017, it is specifically provided that interest involved in credit card services is taxable at 18%.


Q.5 What are the government charges for business GST registration?

Ans. There are no (Nil) charges right now as government fee for registration under GST laws.  However, in case of casual registration, estimated amount tax to be paid in advance before getting registration.


Q.6 I am running a Tea Counter inside a canteen in a software company. I prepare Tea and sell it at the counter.  I wanted to know if my business fall under GST exempted tax category as my raw material includes Milk and Ginger which are 0% GST.

Raw Material : Milk, Sugar, Tea Powder, Ginger and Elachi. Do I fall under Goods or Services? The premises which I operate my business, is not a hotel but a canteen maintained by the software company. Kindly provide me the necessary clarification.

Ans.

First of all, this supply will be considered as Supply of Services. Schedule-II of CGST Act 2017 has specified this supply as service:

“Supply, by way of or as part of any service or in any manner whatsoever, of goods, being food or any other article for human consumption or any drink (other than alcoholic liquor for human consumption) and such supply is for cash, deferred payment or other valuable consideration”, it will be considered as Supply of Service.

Secondly, it is not necessary that your raw materials are tax free components. Tax is applicable on items sold/supplied. If your final product is under taxable category, then tax will be applicable.

Thirdly, Tea is a taxable service under supply of food/drink services. Your service is taxable at the rate of 5%. However, to decide whether you are a taxable person or not, you need to check the registration requirements provided under law. If you require registration under GST, tax will surely applicable on your services.

Please refer following article to check whether you need to register under law or not:-

Registration under GST- Turnover Limits and Other Various Situations


Q.7 Whether activity of bus body building, is a supply of goods or services?

Ans: In the case of bus body building there is supply of goods and services. Thus, classification of this composite supply, as goods or service would depend on which supply is the principal supply which may be determined on the basis of facts and circumstances of each case.


Q.8 Whether retreading of tyres is a supply of goods or services?

Ans. In retreading of tyres, which is a composite supply, the pre-dominant element is the process of retreading which is a supply of service. Rubber used for retreading is an ancillary supply. Which part of a composite supply is the principal supply, must be determined keeping in view the nature of the supply involved. Value may be one of the guiding factors in this determination, but not the sole factor. The primary question that should be asked is what is the essential nature of the composite supply and which element of the supply imparts that essential nature to the composite supply.

Supply of retreaded tyres, where the old tyres belong to the supplier of retreaded tyres, is a supply of goods (retreaded tyres under heading 4012 of the Customs Tariff attracting GST @ 28%)


Q.9 Whether Priority Sector Lending Certificates (PSLCs) are outside the purview of GST and therefore not taxable?

Ans. In Reserve Bank of India FAQ on PSLC, it has been mentioned that PSLC may be construed to be in the nature of goods, dealing in which has been notified as a permissible activity under section 6(1) of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 vide Government  of India notification dated 4th February, 2016. PSLC are not securities. PSLC are akin to freely tradeable duty scrips, Renewable Energy Certificates, REP license or replenishment license, which attracted VAT. In GST there is no exemption to trading in PSLCs.  Thus, PSLCs are taxable as goods at standard rate of 18% under the residuary S. No. 453 of Schedule III of notification No. 1/2017-Central Tax(Rate). GST payable on the certificates would be available as ITC to the bank buying the certificates.


Q. 10  Whether the activities carried by DISCOMS against recovery of charges from consumers under State Electricity Act are exempt from GST?

Ans.  Service by way of transmission or distribution of electricity by an electricity transmission or distribution utility is exempt from GST under notification No. 12/2017- CT (R), Sl. No. 25. The other services such as, –

i. Application fee for releasing connection of electricity;

ii. Rental Charges against metering equipment;

iii. Testing fee for meters/ transformers, capacitors etc.;

iv. Labour charges from customers for shifting of meters or shifting of service lines;

v. charges for duplicate bill;

provided by DISCOMS to consumer are taxable.


Q.11 Whether the guarantee provided by State Government to state owned companies against guarantee commission, is taxable under GST?

Ans. The service provided by Central Government/State Government to any business entity including PSUs by way of guaranteeing the loans taken by them from financial institutions against consideration in any form including Guarantee Commission is taxable.

GTA

Question 1: I am a single truck owner-operator and I ply my truck mostly between States, carrying the goods booked for my truck by an agent; aggregate value of service which I provided exceeded twenty lakh rupees during last year. Am I supposed to take registration?

Answer: You are not liable to registration, as services provided by way of transportation of goods by road are exempt. Notification number 12/2017-Central Tax (Rate), dated 28th June, 2017 refers.

Question 2: I own a single truck and I rent it to a major player, who provides GTA service; should I take a registration? Does my monthly rental/lease income attract GST?

Answer: Registration is not required since services by way of giving on hire, a means of transportation of goods to a GTA are exempt from tax vide entry no. 22 of Notification number 12/2017-Central Tax (Rate) dated 28th June, 2017.

Question 3: In my truck, I only carry fruits and vegetables, in relation to whose transportation service GST is exempt; should I take registration?

Answer: Services by way of transportation of goods by road other than by a GTA or a courier agency are exempt from tax under entry no. 18 of notification No. 12/2017-Central Tax (Rate) dated the 28th June, 2017 and thus you are not liable for registration.

Question 4: I am a truck supplier/broker. My job is to get orders for truck owners. I quote the rate for transportation to GTA on behalf of truck owners and I get a small amount as commission out of the truck hire fixed with the GTA. This brokerage is paid by the truck owners. As the services provided by way of transportation of goods by road are exempt from tax, am I liable to registration?

Answer: You are liable to registration if the aggregate amount of commission received by you in a financial year exceeds Rs. 20 lakhs (Rs. 10 lakhs in special category States except J & K).

Question 5: As a transporter, am I required to maintain any records of my services of transportation?

Answer: Yes, in terms of section 35(2) of the CGST Act, 2017 you are required to maintain records of the consigner, consignee and other relevant details of the goods. Further, in terms of rule 56 of the CGST Rules, 2017 you are required to maintain records of goods transported, delivered and goods stored in transit by you along with the GSTIN of the registered consigner and consignee for each of your branches.

Question 6: Are intermediary and ancillary services, such as, loading/unloading, packing/unpacking, transhipment and temporary warehousing, provided in relation to transportation of goods by road to be treated as part of the GTA service, being a composite supply, or these services are to be treated as separate supplies.

Answer: The GTA provides service to a person in relation to transportation of goods by road in a goods carriage, which is a composite service. The composite service may include various intermediary and ancillary services, such as, loading/unloading, packing/unpacking, transhipment and temporary warehousing, which are provided in the course of transport of goods by road. These services are not provided as independent services but as ancillary to the principal service, namely, transportation of goods by road. The invoice issued by the GTA for providing the said service includes the value of intermediary and ancillary services.

In view of this, if any intermediary and ancillary service is provided in relation to transportation of goods by road, and charges, if any, for such services are included in the invoice issued by the GTA, such service would form part of the GTA service and would not be treated as a separate supply. In fact, any service provided along with the GTA service that is part of the composite service of GTA shall be taxed along with GTA service and not as separate supplies.

However, if such incidental services are provided as separate services and charged separately, whether in the same invoice or separate invoices, they shall be treated as separate supplies.

Question 7: As per Notification number 05/2017-Central Tax dated 19th June, 2017, the persons who are only engaged in making supplies of taxable goods or services or both, the total tax on which is liable to be paid on reverse charge basis by the recipient of such goods or services or both under sub-section (3) of section 9 of the CGST Act, 2017 are exempted from obtaining registration under the said Act. Please clarify whether a GTA providing service in relation to transportation of goods by road under reverse charge mechanism (RCM) can avail of the benefit of this exemption.

Answer: Yes, a GTA providing service in relation to transportation of goods by road under RCM can avail of the benefit of this exemption.

Question 8: Can a GTA obtain registration for one vertical (Rail, Cargo, Renting, Warehousing etc.) for which tax needs to be paid while not obtaining registration for another vertical (GTA under RCM) on which there is no tax liability.

Answer: No, because the business entity is not engaged exclusively in the supply of services liable to tax under reverse charge mechanism. 

Question 9: In transport industry, old vehicles, old tyres, scrap material etc, on which no input tax credit (ITC) has been taken, are disposed of after completion of their useful life. As a truck owner disposing of these goods, am I required to pay GST considering that no ITC has been taken at the time of their initial purchases? Would levy of tax in such cases not amount to double taxation, as tax has already been paid at the time of initial purchases?

Answer: Under section 7 of the CGST Act, 2017 supply includes all forms of supply of goods such as sale, transfer, barter, exchange, licence, rental, lease or disposal made or agreed to be made for a consideration by a person in the course or furtherance of business. Sale or disposal of old vehicles, old tyres and scrap material for a consideration would therefore attract GST regardless of whether ITC has been availed or not.

 Question 10: Please clarify whether input tax credit is available to the recipient of service, when the GST paid by him is at a concessional rate of 5% under RCM.

Answer: Yes, input tax credit is available in such cases.

 Question 11: When a GTA hires a truck (with driver) from another GST registered entity for the purpose of providing goods transport service to a registered recipient, whether tax credit is available to the GTA on the GST paid by him to the owner of the truck registered under GST.

Answer: Services by way of giving on hire to a GTA, a means of transportation of goods are exempt from GST under Notification number 12/2017-Central Tax (Rate) dated 28th June 2017. When the tax is not payable, the question of taking any tax credit does not arise.

Section 2 of CGST Act 2017

Section 2. Definitions

2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,–-
(1) “actionable claim” shall have the same meaning as assigned to it in section 3 of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882;

(2) “address of delivery” means the address of the recipient of goods or services or both indicated on the tax invoice issued by a registered person for delivery of such goods or services or both;

(3) “address on record” means the address of the recipient as available in the records of the supplier;

(4) “adjudicating authority” means any authority, appointed or authorised to pass any order or decision under this Act, but does not include the {Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs} Central Board of Excise and Customs, the Revisional Authority, the Authority for Advance Ruling, the Appellate Authority for Advance Ruling, the National Appellate Authority for Advance Ruling, the Appellate Authority,  and the Appellate Tribunal and the Authority referred to in sub-section (2) of section 171;

(5) “agent” means a person, including a factor, broker, commission agent, arhatia, del credere agent, an auctioneer or any other mercantile agent, by whatever name called, who carries on the business of supply or receipt of goods or services or both on behalf of another;

(6) “aggregate turnover” means the aggregate value of all taxable supplies (excluding the value of inward supplies on which tax is payable by a person on reverse charge basis), exempt supplies, exports of goods or services or both and inter-State supplies of persons having the same Permanent Account Number, to be computed on all India basis but excludes central tax, State tax, Union territory tax, integrated tax and cess;

(7) “agriculturist” means an individual or a Hindu Undivided Family who undertakes cultivation of land—

(a) by own labour, or
(b) by the labour of family, or
(c) by servants on wages payable in cash or kind or by hired labour under personal supervision or the personal supervision of any member of the family;

(8) “Appellate Authority” means an authority appointed or authorised to hear appeals as referred to in section 107;

(9) “Appellate Tribunal” means the Goods and Services Tax Appellate Tribunal constituted under section 109;

(10) “appointed day” means the date on which the provisions of this Act shall come into force;

(11) “assessment” means determination of tax liability under this Act and includes self-assessment, re-assessment, provisional assessment, summary assessment and best judgment assessment;

(12) “associated enterprises” shall have the same meaning as assigned to it in section 92A of the Income-tax Act, 1961;

(13) “audit” means the examination of records, returns and other documents maintained or furnished by the registered person under this Act or the rules made thereunder or under any other law for the time being in force to verify the correctness of turnover declared, taxes paid, refund claimed and input tax credit availed, and to assess his compliance with the provisions of this Act or the rules made thereunder;

(14) “authorised bank” shall mean a bank or a branch of a bank authorised by the Government to collect the tax or any other amount payable under this Act;

(15) “authorised representative” means the representative as referred to in section 116;

(16) “Board” means the Central Board of Excise and Customs constituted under the Central Boards of Revenue Act, 1963;

(17) “business” includes––

(a) any trade, commerce, manufacture, profession, vocation, adventure, wager or any other similar activity, whether or not it is for a pecuniary benefit;
(b) any activity or transaction in connection with or incidental or ancillary to sub-clause (a);
(c) any activity or transaction in the nature of sub-clause (a), whether or not there is volume, frequency, continuity or regularity of such transaction;
(d) supply or acquisition of goods including capital goods and services in connection with commencement or closure of business;
(e) provision by a club, association, society, or any such body (for a subscription or any other consideration) of the facilities or benefits to its members;
(f) admission, for a consideration, of persons to any premises;
(g) services supplied by a person as the holder of an office which has been accepted by him in the course or furtherance of his trade, profession or vocation;

(h) services provided by a race club by way of totalisator or a licence to book maker in such club ; and

(h) activities of a race club including by way of totalisator or a license to book maker or activities of a licensed book maker in such club; and

(i) any activity or transaction undertaken by the Central Government, a State Government or any local authority in which they are engaged as public authorities;

(18) “business vertical” means a distinguishable component of an enterprise that is engaged in the supply of individual goods or services or a group of related goods or services which is subject to risks and returns that are different from those of the other business verticals.  Ommited by CGST Amendment Act 2018

Explanation.––For the purposes of this clause, factors that should be considered in determining whether goods or services are related include––

(a) the nature of the goods or services;
(b) the nature of the production processes;
(c) the type or class of customers for the goods or services;
(d) the methods used to distribute the goods or supply of services; and
(e) the nature of regulatory environment (wherever applicable), including banking, insurance, or public utilities;

(19) “capital goods” means goods, the value of which is capitalised in the books of account of the person claiming the input tax credit and which are used or intended to be used in the course or furtherance of business;

(20) “casual taxable person” means a person who occasionally undertakes transactions involving supply of goods or services or both in the course or furtherance of business, whether as principal, agent or in any other capacity, in a State or a Union territory where he has no fixed place of business;

(21) “central tax” means the central goods and services tax levied under section 9;

(22) “cess” shall have the same meaning as assigned to it in the Goods and Services Tax (Compensation to States) Act;

(23) “chartered accountant” means a chartered accountant as defined in clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Chartered Accountants Act, 1949;

(24) “Commissioner” means the Commissioner of central tax and includes the Principal Commissioner of central tax appointed under section 3 and the Commissioner of integrated tax appointed under the Integrated Goods and Services Tax Act;

(25) “Commissioner in the Board” means the Commissioner referred to in section 168;

(26) “common portal” means the common goods and services tax electronic portal referred to in section 146;

(27) “common working days” in respect of a State or Union territory shall mean such days in succession which are not declared as gazetted holidays by the Central Government or the concerned State or Union territory Government;

(28) “company secretary” means a company secretary as defined in clause (c) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Company Secretaries Act, 1980;

(29) “competent authority” means such authority as may be notified by the Government;

(30) “composite supply” means a supply made by a taxable person to a recipient consisting of two or more taxable supplies of goods or services or both, or any combination thereof, which are naturally bundled and supplied in conjunction with each other in the ordinary course of business, one of which is a principal supply;

Illustration.— Where goods are packed and transported with insurance,  the supply of goods, packing materials, transport and insurance is a composite supply and supply of goods is a principal supply;

(31) “consideration” in relation to the supply of goods or services or both includes––

(a) any payment made or to be made, whether in money or otherwise, in respect of, in response to, or for the inducement of, the supply of goods or services or both, whether by the recipient or by any other person but shall not include any subsidy given by the Central Government or a State Government;

(b) the monetary value of any act or forbearance, in respect of, in response to, or for the inducement of, the supply of goods or services or both, whether by the recipient or by any other person but shall not include any subsidy given by the Central Government or a State Government:

Provided that a deposit given in respect of the supply of goods or services or both shall not be considered as payment made for such supply unless the supplier applies such deposit as consideration for the said supply;

(32) “continuous supply of goods” means a supply of goods which is provided, or agreed to be provided, continuously or on recurrent basis, under a contract, whether or not by means of a wire, cable, pipeline or other conduit, and for which the supplier invoices the recipient on a regular or periodic basis and includes supply of such goods as the Government may, subject to such conditions, as it may, by notification, specify;

(33) “continuous supply of services” means a supply of services which is provided, or agreed to be provided, continuously or on recurrent basis, under a contract, for a period exceeding three months with periodic payment obligations and includes supply of such services as the Government may, subject to such conditions, as it may, by notification, specify;

(34) “conveyance” includes a vessel, an aircraft and a vehicle;

(35) “cost accountant” means a cost accountant as defined in clause (b) (c) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Cost and Works Accountants Act, 1959;

(36) “Council” means the Goods and Services Tax Council established under article 279A of the Constitution;

(37) “credit note” means a document issued by a registered person under sub-section (1) of section 34;

(38) “debit note” means a document issued by a registered person under sub-section (3) of section 34;

(39) “deemed exports” means such supplies of goods as may be notified under section 147;

(40) “designated authority” means such authority as may be notified by the Board;

(41) “document” includes written or printed record of any sort and electronic record as defined in clause (t) of section 2 of the Information Technology Act, 2000;

(42) “drawback” in relation to any goods manufactured in India and exported, means the rebate of duty, tax or cess chargeable on any imported inputs or on any domestic inputs or input services used in the manufacture of such goods;

(43) “electronic cash ledger” means the electronic cash ledger referred to in subsection (1) of section 49;

(44) “electronic commerce” means the supply of goods or services or both, including digital products over digital or electronic network;

(45) “electronic commerce operator” means any person who owns, operates or manages digital or electronic facility or platform for electronic commerce;

(46) “electronic credit ledger” means the electronic credit ledger referred to in sub-section (2) of section 49;

(47) “exempt supply” means supply of any goods or services or both which attracts nil rate of tax or which may be wholly exempt from tax under section 11, or under section 6 of the Integrated Goods and Services Tax Act, and includes non-taxable supply;

(48) “existing law” means any law, notification, order, rule or regulation relating to levy and collection of duty or tax on goods or services or both passed or made before the commencement of this Act by Parliament or any Authority or person having the power to make such law, notification, order, rule or regulation;

(49) “family” means,––

(i) the spouse and children of the person, and
(ii) the parents, grand-parents, brothers and sisters of the person if they are wholly or mainly dependent on the said person;

(50) “fixed establishment” means a place (other than the registered place of business) which is characterised by a sufficient degree of permanence and suitable structure in terms of human and technical resources to supply services, or to receive and use services for its own needs;

(51) “Fund” means the Consumer Welfare Fund established under section 57;

(52) “goods” means every kind of movable property other than money and securities but includes actionable claim, growing crops, grass and things attached to or forming part of the land which are agreed to be severed before supply or under a contract of supply;

(53) “Government” means the Central Government;

(54) “Goods and Services Tax (Compensation to States) Act” means the Goods and Services Tax (Compensation to States) Act, 2017;

(55) “goods and services tax practitioner” means any person who has been approved under section 48 to act as such practitioner;

(56) “India” means the territory of India as referred to in article 1 of the Constitution, its territorial waters, seabed and sub-soil underlying such waters, continental shelf, exclusive economic zone or any other maritime zone as referred to in the Territorial Waters, Continental Shelf, Exclusive Economic Zone and other Maritime Zones Act, 1976, and the air space above its territory and territorial waters;

(57) “Integrated Goods and Services Tax Act” means the Integrated Goods and Services Tax Act, 2017;

(58) “integrated tax” means the integrated goods and services tax levied under the Integrated Goods and Services Tax Act;

(59) “input” means any goods other than capital goods used or intended to be used by a supplier in the course or furtherance of business;

(60) “input service” means any service used or intended to be used by a supplier in the course or furtherance of business;

(61) “Input Service Distributor” means an office of the supplier of goods or services or both which receives tax invoices issued under section 31 towards the receipt of input services and issues a prescribed document for the purposes of distributing the credit of central tax, State tax, integrated tax or Union territory tax paid on the said services to a supplier of taxable goods or services or both having the same Permanent Account Number as that of the said office;

(62) “input tax” in relation to a registered person, means the central tax, State tax, integrated tax or Union territory tax charged on any supply of goods or services or both made to him and includes—

(a) the integrated goods and services tax charged on import of goods;
(b) the tax payable under the provisions of sub-sections (3) and (4) of section 9;
(c) the tax payable under the provisions of sub-sections (3) and (4) of section 5 of the Integrated Goods and Services Tax Act;
(d) the tax payable under the provisions of sub-sections (3) and (4) of section 9 of the respective State Goods and Services Tax Act; or
(e) the tax payable under the provisions of sub-sections (3) and (4) of section 7 of the Union Territory Goods and Services Tax Act,

but does not include the tax paid under the composition levy;

(63) “input tax credit” means the credit of input tax;

(64) “intra-State supply of goods” shall have the same meaning as assigned to it in section 8 of the Integrated Goods and Services Tax Act;

(65) “intra-State supply of services” shall have the same meaning as assigned to it in section 8 of the Integrated Goods and Services Tax Act;

(66) “invoice” or “tax invoice” means the tax invoice referred to in section 31;

(67) “inward supply” in relation to a person, shall mean receipt of goods or services or both whether by purchase, acquisition or any other means with or without consideration;

(68) “job work” means any treatment or process undertaken by a person on goods belonging to another registered person and the expression “job worker” shall be construed accordingly;

(69) “local authority” means––

(a) a “Panchayat” as defined in clause (d) of article 243 of the Constitution;
(b) a “Municipality” as defined in clause (e) of article 243P of the Constitution;
(c) a Municipal Committee, a Zilla Parishad, a District Board, and any other authority legally entitled to, or entrusted by the Central Government or any State Government with the control or management of a municipal or local fund;
(d) a Cantonment Board as defined in section 3 of the Cantonments Act, 2006;
(e) a Regional Council or a District Council constituted under the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution;
(f) a Development Board constituted under article 371 and article 371J of the Constitution; or
(g) a Regional Council constituted under article 371A of the Constitution;

(70) “location of the recipient of services” means,—

(a) where a supply is received at a place of business for which the registration has been obtained, the location of such place of business;

(b) where a supply is received at a place other than the place of business for which registration has been obtained (a fixed establishment elsewhere), the location of such fixed establishment;

(c) where a supply is received at more than one establishment, whether the place of business or fixed establishment, the location of the establishment most directly concerned with the receipt of the supply; and

(d) in absence of such places, the location of the usual place of residence of the recipient;

(71) “location of the supplier of services” means,—

(a) where a supply is made from a place of business for which the registration has been obtained, the location of such place of business;
(b) where a supply is made from a place other than the place of business for which registration has been obtained (a fixed establishment elsewhere), the location of such fixed establishment;
(c) where a supply is made from more than one establishment, whether the place of business or fixed establishment, the location of the establishment most directly concerned with the provisions of the supply; and
(d) in absence of such places, the location of the usual place of residence of the supplier;

(72) “manufacture” means processing of raw material or inputs in any manner that results in emergence of a new product having a distinct name, character and use and the term “manufacturer” shall be construed accordingly;

(73) “market value” shall mean the full amount which a recipient of a supply is required to pay in order to obtain the goods or services or both of like kind and quality at or about the same time and at the same commercial level where the recipient and the supplier are not related;

(74) “mixed supply” means two or more individual supplies of goods or services, or any combination thereof, made in conjunction with each other by a taxable person for a single price where such supply does not constitute a composite supply.

Illustration.— A supply of a package consisting of canned foods, sweets, chocolates, cakes, dry fruits, aerated drinks and fruit juices when supplied for a single price is a mixed supply. Each of these items can be supplied separately and is not dependent on any other. It shall not be a mixed supply if these items are supplied separately;

(75) “money” means the Indian legal tender or any foreign currency, cheque, promissory note, bill of exchange, letter of credit, draft, pay order, traveller cheque, money order, postal or electronic remittance or any other instrument recognised by the Reserve Bank of India when used as a consideration to settle an obligation or exchange with Indian legal tender of another denomination but shall not include any currency that is held for its numismatic value;

(76) “motor vehicle” shall have the same meaning as assigned to it in clause (28) of section 2 of the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988;

(77) “non-resident taxable person” means any person who occasionally undertakes transactions involving supply of goods or services or both, whether as principal or agent or in any other capacity, but who has no fixed place of business or residence in India;

(78) “non-taxable supply” means a supply of goods or services or both which is not leviable to tax under this Act or under the Integrated Goods and Services Tax Act;

(79) “non-taxable territory” means the territory which is outside the taxable territory;

(80) “notification” means a notification published in the Official Gazette and the expressions “notify” and “notified” shall be construed accordingly;

(81) “other territory” includes territories other than those comprising in a State and those referred to in sub-clauses (a) to (e) of clause (114) ;

(82) “output tax” in relation to a taxable person, means the tax chargeable under this Act on taxable supply of goods or services or both made by him or by his agent but excludes tax payable by him on reverse charge basis;

(83) “outward supply” in relation to a taxable person, means supply of goods or services or both, whether by sale, transfer, barter, exchange, licence, rental, lease or disposal or any other mode, made or agreed to be made by such person in the course or furtherance of business;

(84) “person” includes—

(a) an individual;
(b) a Hindu Undivided Family;
(c) a company;
(d) a firm;
(e) a Limited Liability Partnership;
(f) an association of persons or a body of individuals, whether incorporated or not, in India or outside India;
(g) any corporation established by or under any Central Act, State Act or Provincial Act or a Government company as defined in clause (45) of section 2 of the Companies Act, 2013;
(h) any body corporate incorporated by or under the laws of a country outside India;
(i) a co-operative society registered under any law relating to co-operative societies;

(j) a local authority;
(k) Central Government or a State Government;
(l) society as defined under the Societies Registration Act, 1860;
(m) trust; and
(n) every artificial juridical person, not falling within any of the above;

(85) “place of business” includes––

(a) a place from where the business is ordinarily carried on, and includes a warehouse, a godown or any other place where a taxable person stores his goods, supplies or receives goods or services or both; or
(b) a place where a taxable person maintains his books of account; or
(c) a place where a taxable person is engaged in business through an agent, by whatever name called;

(86) “place of supply” means the place of supply as referred to in Chapter V of the Integrated Goods and Services Tax Act;

(87) “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made under this Act on the recommendations of the Council;

(88) “principal” means a person on whose behalf an agent carries on the business of supply or receipt of goods or services or both;

(89) “principal place of business” means the place of business specified as the principal place of business in the certificate of registration;

(90) “principal supply” means the supply of goods or services which constitutes the predominant element of a composite supply and to which any other supply forming part of that composite supply is ancillary;

(91) “proper officer” in relation to any function to be performed under this Act, means the Commissioner or the officer of the central tax who is assigned that function by the Commissioner in the Board;

(92) “quarter” shall mean a period comprising three consecutive calendar months, ending on the last day of March, June, September and December of a calendar year;

(93) “recipient” of supply of goods or services or both, means—

(a) where a consideration is payable for the supply of goods or services or both, the person who is liable to pay that consideration;
(b) where no consideration is payable for the supply of goods, the person to whom the goods are delivered or made available, or to whom possession or use of the goods is given or made available; and
(c) where no consideration is payable for the supply of a service, the person to whom the service is rendered, and any reference to a person to whom a supply is made shall be construed as a reference to the recipient of the supply and shall include an agent acting as such on behalf of the recipient in relation to the goods or services or both supplied;

(94) “registered person” means a person who is registered under section 25 but does not include a person having a Unique Identity Number;

(95) “regulations” means the regulations made by the Board under this Act on the recommendations of the Council;

(96) “removal’’ in relation to goods, means—

(a) despatch of the goods for delivery by the supplier thereof or by any other person acting on behalf of such supplier; or
(b) collection of the goods by the recipient thereof or by any other person acting on behalf of such recipient;

(97) “return” means any return prescribed or otherwise required to be furnished by or under this Act or the rules made thereunder;

(98) “reverse charge” means the liability to pay tax by the recipient of supply of goods or services or both instead of the supplier of such goods or services or both under sub-section (3) or sub-section (4) of section 9, or under sub-section (3) or subsection (4) of section 5 of the Integrated Goods and Services Tax Act;

(99) “Revisional Authority” means an authority appointed or authorised for revision of decision or orders as referred to in section 108;

(100) “Schedule” means a Schedule appended to this Act;

(101) “securities” shall have the same meaning as assigned to it in clause (h) of section 2 of the Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956;

(102) “services” means anything other than goods, money and securities but includes activities relating to the use of money or its conversion by cash or by any other mode, from one form, currency or denomination, to another form, currency or denomination for which a separate consideration is charged;

Explanation.––For the removal of doubts, it is hereby clarified that the expression “services” includes facilitating or arranging transactions in securities;

(103) “State” includes a Union territory with Legislature;

(104) “State tax” means the tax levied under any State Goods and Services Tax Act;

(105) “supplier” in relation to any goods or services or both, shall mean the person supplying the said goods or services or both and shall include an agent acting as such on behalf of such supplier in relation to the goods or services or both supplied;

(106) “tax period” means the period for which the return is required to be furnished;

(107) “taxable person” means a person who is registered or liable to be registered under section 22 or section 24;

(108) “taxable supply” means a supply of goods or services or both which is leviable to tax under this Act;

(109) “taxable territory” means the territory to which the provisions of this Act apply;

(110) “telecommunication service” means service of any description (including electronic mail, voice mail, data services, audio text services, video text services, radio paging and cellular mobile telephone services) which is made available to users by means of any transmission or reception of signs, signals, writing, images and sounds or intelligence of any nature, by wire, radio, visual or other electromagnetic means;

(111) “the State Goods and Services Tax Act” means the respective State Goods and Services Tax Act, 2017;

(112) “turnover in State” or “turnover in Union territory” means the aggregate value of all taxable supplies (excluding the value of inward supplies on which tax is payable by a person on reverse charge basis) and exempt supplies made within a State or Union territory by a taxable person, exports of goods or services or both and inter-State supplies of goods or services or both made from the State or Union territory by the said taxable person but excludes central tax, State tax, Union territory tax, integrated tax and cess;

(113) “usual place of residence” means––

(a) in case of an individual, the place where he ordinarily resides;
(b) in other cases, the place where the person is incorporated or otherwise legally constituted;

(114) “Union territory” means the territory of—

(a) the Andaman and Nicobar Islands;
(b) Lakshadweep;
(c) Dadra and Nagar Haveli;
(d) Daman and Diu;
(e) Chandigarh; and
(f) other territory.

Explanation.––For the purposes of this Act, each of the territories specified in sub-clauses (a) to (f) shall be considered to be a separate Union territory;

(115) “Union territory tax” means the Union territory goods and services tax levied under the Union Territory Goods and Services Tax Act;

(116) “Union Territory Goods and Services Tax Act” means the Union Territory Goods and Services Tax Act, 2017;

(117) “valid return” means a return furnished under sub-section (1) of section 39 on which self-assessed tax has been paid in full;

(118) “voucher” means an instrument where there is an obligation to accept it as consideration or part consideration for a supply of goods or services or both and where the goods or services or both to be supplied or the identities of their potential suppliers are either indicated on the instrument itself or in related documentation, including the terms and conditions of use of such instrument;

(119) “works contract” means a contract for building, construction, fabrication, completion, erection, installation, fitting out, improvement, modification, repair, maintenance, renovation, alteration or commissioning of any immovable property wherein transfer of property in goods (whether as goods or in some other form) is involved in the execution of such contract;

(120) words and expressions used and not defined in this Act but defined in the Integrated Goods and Services Tax Act, the Union Territory Goods and Services Tax Act and the Goods and Services Tax (Compensation to States) Act shall have the same meaning as assigned to them in those Acts;

(121) any reference in this Act to a law which is not in force in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, shall, in relation to that State be construed as a reference to the corresponding law, if any, in force in that State.

Section 2 of IGST Act 2017

Section 2 of IGST Act 2017

2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,––

(1) “Central Goods and Services Tax Act” means the Central Goods and Services Tax Act, 2017;

(2) ‘‘central tax” means the tax levied and collected under the Central Goods and Services Tax Act;

(3) “continuous journey” means a journey for which a single or more than one ticket or invoice is issued at the same time, either by a single supplier of service or through an agent acting on behalf of more than one supplier of service, and which involves no stopover between any of the legs of the journey for which one or more separate tickets or invoices are issued.

Explanation––For the purposes of this clause, the term “stopover” means a place where a passenger can disembark either to transfer to another conveyance or break his journey for a certain period in order to resume it at a later point of time;

(4) “customs frontiers of India” means the limits of a customs area as defined in section 2 of the Customs Act, 1962;

(5) “export of goods” with its grammatical variations and cognate expressions, means taking goods out of India to a place outside India;

(6) “export of services” means the supply of any service when,––

(i) the supplier of service is located in India;
(ii) the recipient of service is located outside India;
(iii) the place of supply of service is outside India;
(iv) the payment for such service has been received by the supplier of service in convertible foreign exchange “or in Indian rupees wherever permitted by the Reserve Bank of India” ; and
(v) the supplier of service and the recipient of service are not merely establishments of a distinct person in accordance with Explanation 1 in section 8;

(7) “fixed establishment” means a place (other than the registered place of business) which is characterised by a sufficient degree of permanence and suitable structure in terms of human and technical resources to supply services or to receive and use services for its own needs;

(8) “Goods and Services Tax (Compensation to States) Act” means the Goods and Services Tax (Compensation to States) Act, 2017;

(9) “Government” means the Central Government;

(10) ‘‘import of goods” with its grammatical variations and cognate expressions, means bringing goods into India from a place outside India;

(11) ‘‘import of services” means the supply of any service, where––

(i) the supplier of service is located outside India;
(ii) the recipient of service is located in India; and
(iii) the place of supply of service is in India;

(12) “integrated tax” means the integrated goods and services tax levied under this Act;

(13) “intermediary” means a broker, an agent or any other person, by whatever name called, who arranges or facilitates the supply of goods or services or both, or securities, between two or more persons, but does not include a person who supplies such goods or services or both or securities on his own account;

(14) “location of the recipient of services” means,––

(a) where a supply is received at a place of business for which the registration has been obtained, the location of such place of business;
(b) where a supply is received at a place other than the place of business for which registration has been obtained (a fixed establishment elsewhere), the location of such fixed establishment;
(c) where a supply is received at more than one establishment, whether the place of business or fixed establishment, the location of the establishment most directly concerned with the receipt of the supply; and
(d) in absence of such places, the location of the usual place of residence of the recipient;

(15) “location of the supplier of services” means,––

(a) where a supply is made from a place of business for which the registration has been obtained, the location of such place of business;
(b) where a supply is made from a place other than the place of business for which registration has been obtained (a fixed establishment elsewhere), the location of such fixed establishment;
(c) where a supply is made from more than one establishment, whether the place of business or fixed establishment, the location of the establishment most directly concerned with the provision of the supply; and
(d) in absence of such places, the location of the usual place of residence of the supplier;

(16) “non-taxable online recipient” means any Government, local authority, governmental authority, an individual or any other person not registered and receiving online information and database access or retrieval services in relation to any purpose other than commerce, industry or any other business or profession, located in taxable territory.

Explanation.––For the purposes of this clause, the expression “governmental authority” means an authority or a board or any other body,––

(i) set up by an Act of Parliament or a State Legislature; or
(ii) established by any Government, with ninety per cent. or more participation by way of equity or control, to carry out any function entrusted to a Panchayat under article 243G or to a municipality under article 243W of the Constitution;

(17) “online information and database access or retrieval services” means services whose delivery is mediated by information technology over the internet or an electronic network and the nature of which renders their supply essentially automated and involving minimal human intervention and impossible to ensure in the absence of information technology and includes electronic services such as,––

(i) advertising on the internet;
(ii) providing cloud services;
(iii) provision of e-books, movie, music, software and other intangibles through telecommunication networks or internet;
(iv) providing data or information, retrievable or otherwise, to any person in electronic form through a computer network;
(v) online supplies of digital content (movies, television shows, music and the like);
(vi) digital data storage; and
(vii) online gaming;

(18) “output tax”, in relation to a taxable person, means the integrated tax chargeable under this Act on taxable supply of goods or services or both made by him or by his agent but excludes tax payable by him on reverse charge basis;

(19) “Special Economic Zone” shall have the same meaning as assigned to it in clause (za) of section 2 of the Special Economic Zones Act, 2005;

(20) “Special Economic Zone developer” shall have the same meaning as assigned to it in clause (g) of section 2 of the Special Economic Zones Act, 2005 and includes an Authority as defined in clause (d) and a Co-Developer as defined in clause (f ) of section 2 of the said Act;

(21) “supply” shall have the same meaning as assigned to it in section 7 of the Central Goods and Services Tax Act;

(22) “taxable territory” means the territory to which the provisions of this Act apply;

(23) “zero-rated supply” shall have the meaning assigned to it in section 16;

(24) words and expressions used and not defined in this Act but defined in the Central Goods and Services Tax Act, the Union Territory Goods and Services Tax Act and the Goods and Services Tax (Compensation to States) Act shall have the same meaning as assigned to them in those Acts;

(25) any reference in this Act to a law which is not in force in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, shall, in relation to that State be construed as a reference to the corresponding law, if any, in force in that State.

Definitions under CGST Rate N/N 11/2017

Paragraph No. 4 of CGST Rate Notification No. 11/2017 (i.e. notification prescribing GST rate on Intra-state supply of services) provides some definitions/meanings of some terms used in this notification which are sometimes referred in act, rules or other notifications.

Such Paragraph No. 4 is enumerated as “Explanations” and are reproduced below :-

4. Explanation.- For the purposes of this notification,-

(i) Goods includes capital goods.

(ii) Reference to “Chapter”, “Section” or “Heading”, wherever they occur, unless the context otherwise requires, shall mean respectively as “Chapter, “Section” and “Heading” in the annexed scheme of classification of services (Annexure).

(iii) The rules for the interpretation of the First Schedule to the Customs Tariff Act, 1975 (51 of 1975), the Section and Chapter Notes and the General Explanatory Notes of the First Schedule shall, so far as may be, apply to the interpretation of heading 9988.

(iv) Wherever a rate has been prescribed in this notification subject to the condition that credit of input tax charged on goods or services used in supplying the service has not been taken, it shall mean that,-

(a) credit of input tax charged on goods or services used exclusively in supplying such service has not been taken; and

(b) credit of input tax charged on goods or services used partly for supplying such service and partly for effecting other supplies eligible for input tax credits, is reversed as if supply of such service is an exempt supply and attracts provisions of sub-section (2) of section 17 of the Central Goods and Services Tax Act, 2017 and the rules made thereunder.

(v) “information technology software” means any representation of instructions, data, sound or image, including source code and object code, recorded in a machine readable form, and capable of being manipulated or providing interactivity to a user, by means of a computer or an automatic data processing machine or any other device or equipment.

(vi) “agricultural extension” means application of scientific research and knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education or training.

(vii) “agricultural produce” means any produce out of cultivation of plants and rearing of all life forms of animals, except the rearing of horses, for food, fibre, fuel, raw material or other similar products, on which either no further processing is done or such processing is done as is usually done by a cultivator or producer which does not alter its essential characteristics but makes it marketable for primary market.

(viii) “Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee or Board” means any committee or board constituted under a State law for the time being in force for the purpose of regulating the marketing of agricultural produce.

followings inserted vide N/N 31/2017 w.e.f. 13/10/2017

“(ix) “Governmental Authority” means an authority or a board or any other body, –

(i) set up by an Act of Parliament or a State Legislature; or

(ii) established by any Government,

with 90 per cent. or more participation by way of equity or control, to carry out any function entrusted to a Municipality under article 243 W of the Constitution or to a Panchayat under article 243 G of the Constitution.

(x) “Government Entity” means an authority or a board or any other body including a society, trust, corporation,

i) set up by an Act of Parliament or State Legislature; or

ii) established by any Government,

with 90per cent. or more participation by way of equity or control, to carry out a function entrusted by the Central Government, State Government, Union Territory or a local authority.”.